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Brief Milestone-Updated 01 August 2011
The Conference on Our World in Concrete & Structures
Brief Milestone since 1976
Brief Milestone since 1976
The idea to provide a platform for academicians, professors, researchers, practitioners, architects, builders, contractors, developers, engineers, manufacturers, ready-mixed concrete producers and suppliers, technologists and all those interested and involved in concrete to gather together and to meet regularly and exchange views on the latest progress and development made in concrete technology was conceived in 1975.
The initial responses were not encouraging especially from the professionals in Singapore, but the ready-mixed concrete industry saw the `goodness' of the idea and answered the ‘call’ to sponsor a one-day seminar on Our World in Concrete as presented by CI-Premier Conference Organisation. This sponsorship support paved the way for more indepth discussion with the academicians and the idea became reality when Professor Lee Seng Lip, then the head of the department of civil engineering at the then University of Singapore consented to be the Seminar Advisor to formulate the technical programme.
The inaugural seminar was held on 28 August 1976 with Professor T Y Lin and Professor Lee Seng Lip providing the first keynote papers.
It has since gone a long way and the support from the professionals and other allied sectors of the industry started to come in and the one-day seminar on concrete technology was enlarged to a two-day conference to include discussions in concrete structures as well.
The Conference initiated the idea of the creation of a concrete institute in Singapore and in 1978, the Singapore Concrete Institute was formed. Only in 1984 the Singapore Concrete Institute and the American Concrete Institute officially joined in the ranks as sponsors of the Conference.
In 1983 the Conference Concrete Awards scheme was instituted but only in 1984, three RMCAS Awards were bestowed on original and outstanding papers presented at the Conference.
In 1986, the Cement Manufacturers Association of Singapore and the Prestressed and Precast Society of Singapore join the sponsoring group.
In 1988, the Conference became truly international when the Japan Concrete Institute became its first overseas support Organisation. Since then 13 other concrete and engineering associations, institutes, societies from around the world, are giving their support making the conference a truly international event.
In 1996, the Conference came of age and introduced the first ‘Young Concrete Researcher Award.
In 1997, the Singapore Granite Suppliers’ Association joined the sponsorship of the Conference.
1998 saw the expansion of the event to embrace the first CONCRETE WEEK of SINGAPORE incorporating the Concrete Industry Dinner, pre- and post- conference symposia, workshops and specialty events lasting for a whole week.
The Conference celebrated its 25th Anniversary at the turn of the twentieth century with four Concrete Industry Recognition Awards presented at the grand Conference Industry Dinner.
The first CONFERENCE LECTURE was introduced.
The new millennium gave the Conference new dimensions. The support and contribution of many Professionals, Professors and Organisations are now measured, not in years, but decades, and the Conference decided to ‘dedicate’ the Conference as an honour and recognition to their contribution and support. In 2001, the conference was dedicated to Prof Franco Mola, Politecnic di Milano, Italy and in 2002, the dedication was made to Prof G M Sabnis, Howard University, USA.
In 2003, the Conference was dedicated to the JAPAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE for their 17 years of support and contribution, JCI sponsored a keynote speaker to each of past conference and also sponsored the JCI-OWICS Award for an original and outstanding paper presented at the Conference since 1991.
Prof S Ikeda, the one who linked the JCI to OWICS was accorded the honour to deliver the CONFERENCE LECTURE 2003.
For 15 years of continuous support and contribution towards the success of the Conference, the 2004 Conference was dedicated to the INDIAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE in 2004 and the President Prof M C Tandon was in attendance to present the ICI-OWICS Dedication Lecture.
Mr C R Alimchandani, another stalwart of the Conference series, delivered the 2004 CONFERENCE LECTURE.
Prof Emeritus Seng Lip Lee returned to deliver the 30th Anniversary Lecture and the celebration was marked with the full attendance of the 4 previous Conference Lecturers, viz: Prof F Mola, Prof G M Sabnis, Prof S Ikeda and Mr C R Alimchandani and they joined the ranks of Honorary Chairmen.
The 30th Conference in 2005 was dedicated to the 5 support Organisations in Singapore viz: - The Ready-Mixed Concrete Association of Singapore
- The American Concrete Institute-Singapore Chapter
- The Singapore Concrete Institute
- The Prestressed & Precast Concrete Society
- The Cement Association of Singapore
With this special recognition, the 7 Organisations viz: the RMCAS, ACI-SC, SCI, PPCS, CAS, JCI and ICI were made OWICS Organisation Advisors;
W R Grace Singapore Pte Ltd and BASF Construction Chemicals Singapore Pte Ltd were specially recognised as OWICS Corporate Advisors.
The following Individuals received the special recognition as OWICS Advisors, viz
Yukio Aoyagi, Japan; Ken Day, Australia; Willie Kay, Singapore; Robert G Lee, USA; Steven Loh, Singapore Hoe-Peng Lim, Singapore; Kiat-Huat Seow, Singapore; Chris Stanley, Hong Kong; and Teng Hooi Tan, Singapore;.
5 Concrete Awards were bestowed on original and outstanding technical papers, and the W R Grace Young Concrete Researcher Award 2005 was awarded to Mr Kyaw Myint-Lay, National University of Singapore.
After three decades, the OWICS Conference went into a new dimension to give special recognition to a prominent engineer who had made significant contribution to the concrete in the Country. The 31st Conference in 2006 identified and honoured Mr Lau Joo Meng, the deputy CEO (Building) of the
Housing and Development Board, Singapore for his outstanding efforts and contribution in placing Singapore in the world map for the ‘Housing for the People’ programme.
The conference was honoured with his rendition of 4 major lectures viz:
*Blueprints for Success - Singapore's Public Housing Development
*System and Technology Development for our Quality Public Housing
*Maintenance and Performance Strategy for Public Housing Development
*Innovative Research & Development in a World Class Public Housing
including the launching of his publication.
The Concrete Quiz for tertiary Institutions was terminated and the ‘slot’ was replaced by an interesting ROUND TABLE DIALOGUE on ‘Housing for the Nation’, sponsored by the Singapore Concrete Institute.
Other highlights of the 2006 conference included the 6 keynote lectures from Prof F Mola, Italy and Mr C R Alimchandani, India, both are Hon. OWICS Advisors, Mr Chris Stanley Hong Kong, an OWICS Advisor; Dr O Wallevik, Iceland, Prof F Tomsawa, President of Japan Concrete Institute and Mr Bishwadip Sen, President of Indian Concrete Institute.
8 Concrete Awards were accorded to original and outstanding technical papers including the WRGrace Young Concrete Researcher Award to Ms Sayoko Tachibana, Kanazawa University, Japan for her paper on ‘Experimental study on the impact behavior and performance of reinforced concrete beam with some absorbing materials’.
Another milestone in the conference agenda was the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding between the Singapore Concrete Institute and the Indian Concrete Institute.
In view of the many other international conferences of specialty topics initiated from OWICS, viz Conferences on “Inspection, Appraisal, Repairs and Maintenance of Structures”, the “Fibre Reinforced Materials”, the “Conceptual Approach to Structures Design”, the “Recent Advances in Concrete Technology”, “The Concrete Future” and others, the steering committee created the OWICS LECTURE SERIES which will be featured in these specialty conferences. The speaker of the OWICS LECTURE must be one of the ADVISORS of OWICS (be it an Honorary Chairmen, Organisation, Corporate or Individual Advisor).
To kick-start the series, Dr C T Tam, who was instrumental in establishing the Conference Series on “Inspection, Appraisal, Repairs and Maintenance of Structures” (celebrating its ten presentation in Hong Kong in October 2006) presented the first OWICS LECTURE on “Uncertainties in Assessing In-Situ Concrete Strength”
The second OWICS LECTURE entitled “Recent development of hybrid technology in the construction of prestressed concrete bridges” was presented by Prof Shoji Ikeda (an Hon. OWICS Advisor) at the inaugural International Conference on RECENT ADVANCES IN CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY on 19-21 September 2007 in Washington DC, U.S.A.
56 papers (the Conference Lecture 2007, 10 keynote papers and 45 technical papers) from 21 countries (Algeria, Australia, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Germany, Hong Kong, Iceland, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Singapore, Sweden, Taiwan, United Kingdom and USA) focused on ready-mixed technology and all other aspects of concrete and structural design, construction, materials, etc were presented and published in Volume XXVI of the Proceedings referenced by ISBN.
OW07 Conference was dedicated to Mr Chris Stanley, for his significant support and contribution to OWICS for over 20 years and he will deliver the CONFERENCE LECTURE entitled, ‘Concrete can be beautiful – the role of surface finishes in enhancing the appearance of concrete’
In response to the theme READY-MIXED CONCRETE TECNOLOGY, Mr Stanley delivered a second paper on ‘Ready Mixed Concrete in the 21st Century.’
To support Mr Stanley, there were 10 other keynote presentations by Prof Y Tsuji representing the Japan Concrete Institute; Prof F Mola, Italy; Mr C R Alimchandani, India; Dr O Wallevik, Iceland; Prof N Otsuki, Japan, Prof P Stepanek, Czech Republic; Prof Issam Harik, USA; Mr Desmond King, Singapore, Prof M Collepardi, Italy and Mr Ken Day, Australia.
The Conference created two new Awards for original and highly commendable papers presented. ELKEM Materials S.E.A. sponsored one and HOLCIM sponsored the other but qualified that the award was for papers on “Sustainability”. A total of 11 concrete awards are available at OW07 Conference, however only 6 papers were nominated.
The READY MIXED CONCRETE ASSOCIATION OF SINGAPORE ‘hosted’ the SPECIAL READY-MIXED CONCRETE ROUND TABLE DIALOGUE, where a selected panel answered and discussed Ready-mixed concrete for the tropics, Ready-mixed concrete for infrastructure development, New construction materials for ready-mixed concrete, Ready-mixed concrete - a global perspective, New test methods and Production and quality control
Elkem Materials S.E.A. gave the support as the SILVER CO-SPONSOR with Max Frank GmbH & Co KG and ConTech Pte Ltd as Exhibitors
THE OW08 CONFERENCE was dedicated to Prof Nobuaki Otsuki, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan in recognition of his support & contribution continuously for the past fifteen years. He delivered the OW08 CONFERENCE LECTURE on the topic "30 years’ research on the durability of port & harbor structures".
In his honour ‘a special dedication session’ by his past graduates was presented, viz:
Takahiko Amino, Toa Corporation, Japan; Melito A Baccay, Technological University of the Philippines, Philippines; Ronaldo S Gallardo, De La Salle University, Philippines; P Kamhangrittirong, Kasetsart University, Thailand; Keiyu Kawaai, Chiyoda Corporation, Japan; Tsuyoshi Saito, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
The special emphasis theme for OW08 on ”SUSTAINABILITY” received great support from the industry with the theme lecture on ‘Sustainable Construction and Development’ delivered by Prof Holger Wallbaum ETH, Switzerland (Dr Wallbaum was invited by Holcim Singapore Pte Ltd this occasion and joined the Conference’s ‘Round Table Dialogue’ on Sustainability, too.
OWICS-2009 on 16-18 August continues this focus with GREEN CONCRETE as its theme. As indicated in the web page of the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association of U.S.A., concrete is increasingly being recognized for its strong environmental benefits in support of creative and effective sustainable development. When considering the lifetime environmental impact of a building material -- extraction, production, construction, operation, demolition and recycling -- concrete is an excellent choice to meet these goals. Concrete has been the construction material of choice and it is the view of many that it will continue to play the lead role in building infrastructure for future generations. Our built environment must be able to accommodate our modern and demanding lifestyles whilst ensuring that the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is not compromised.
The conference was dedicated to Mr Ken Day, Consultant, Australia in recognition of his support and contribution to OWICS for more than twenty-five years. He delivered the OW09 CONFERENCE LECTURE’ on the theme topic “GREEN CONCRETE”.
The concrete world is in a period of turmoil with buzzwords being sustainability; greenhouse gas; carbon taxes; high strength; low variability; self-compaction; fine particles; cement replacement; geopolymers; P2P; fibres; e-crete and i-crete. What will the future bring-FUTURECRETE? Ken Day gave his crystal ball vision and provided some answers.
More than 50 keynote and technical papers from 19 countries - Australia, Canada, China, Czech Republic, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Malaysia, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Turkey, United Arab Emirates and USA were presented.
KeyNote papers for OW09 were delivered by -Prof Issam Harik, University of Kentucky, USA; Mr Chris Stanley, Unibeton, UAE; Prof Franco Mola, Politecnic School of Milano, Italy; Dr Rokuro Tomita,Vice President, Japan Concrete Institute, Japan; Dr J P Desai, Holcim, Singapore; with a Special “Prof Otsuki” Session of 4 papers from his researchers -Takahiko Amino, Toa Corporation, Japan; -Khamhou Saphouvong, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan; -Daisuke Furuya, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan; -F Ukishima, Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd, Japan
Conference Awards: (for original and outstanding papers)
-The W R GRACE “Young Concrete Researcher Award”
was presented to Ms F Ukishima, Japan
3 other-Highly Commendable Concrete Awards” viz:
-JCI Award presented to Mr Ruwan Jayasooriya, Australia,
-ACI-SC Award was presented to Dr D V Reddy, USA,
-STUP Award was presented to Mr Takahiko Amino, Japan
• Round Table Dialogue–‘Green Concrete’’ attracted much discussion from the audience with Prof Gary Ong leading the panel comprising Dr C T Tam, Dr S Ghosh, Mr Ken Day, Mr Chris Stanley, Prof Issam Harik, and Mr R Tomita.
• Concrete Industry Dinner was attended by some 230 conference delegates, members of RMCAS, SCI, ACI-SC, PPCS and Companies
• 2 Concrete Quizes, one on the THEME sponsored by BASF for all attendees of the conference and the other the Stanley Concrete Quiz sponsored by ACI-SC Chapter at the Concrete Industry Dinner.
OWICS 2010 – celebrating the 35th anniversary on the theme “The Challenge of Low Carbon Age”
The conference and the Concrete Industry Dinner celebrating the 35th Anniversary of the OWICS Conference was attended by some 400 participants.
The conference was dedicated to Prof Gary K C Ong, National University of Singapore for his dedication and contribution for more than 20 years. He delivered the OWICS ANNIVERSARY LECTURE entitled "Sustainability in Singapore's urban infrastructure"
In his honour, 3-Special Dedication Sessions were presented, viz:
a-from Colleagues in the University
-Vincent Wang on “Effect of Material Degradation Models on the Safety Performance of Reinforced Concrete Members Subject to Extreme Loading”
-Ali Akbarnezhad, on “Mechanical Properties of Concrete Incorporating Microwave-Treated Recycled Concrete Aggregates”
-K D Chan on “Passing ability of SCC - improved method based on the p-ring”
-Lado Riannevo Chandra on “The Effect of Substrate Preparation on Early Age Shrinkage and Crack Developments of Composite Cementitious Materials”
b-from Singapore Concrete Institute
-Wei LI on “Effect of photocatalyst TIO2 on workability, strength, and self - cleaning efficiency of mortars for applications in tropical environment”
-Sabet Divsholi Bahador on “Monitoring Hydration of Concrete with Piezoelectric Transducers”
-Sherly Wijaya on “Study on ultra high performance-self compacting concrete (UHP-SCC) and its ultra high-rise pumping technology”
-R Sri Ravindrarajah*
Environmentally Friendly Pervious Concrete for Sustainable Construction
c-from ACI-Singapore Chapter
Julifin on “Screening test for imported concrete aggregates”
-Jin Ping LU on “Use Of "Concrete Family" Concept For Conformity Control Of Ready Mixed Concrete”
-Sook Fun Wong on “Use Of Recycled Plastics In A Pavement System”
Jiang Jiabiao on “The Role of Sulfate in Optimising Interaction between Cementitious and Admixtures”
64 KEYNOTE AND TECHNICAL PAPERS were published and more than 50 were presented and discussed at the two-day conference at the Hotel ParkRoyal on Kitchener Road.
The Keynote Papers and speakers were:
• “Conceptual Design of Structures in the Developing Countries of Asia, Africa, and the Pacific and Indian Oceans for Reducing Carbon Emissions” by Mr C R Alimchandani, India
• “Effects of column shortening in R.C. tall buildings” by Prof Franco Mola, Italy
• "Activities of Japan Concrete Institute and introduction of "Crack Guideline -2009-"
by Prof Nobuaki Otsuki, Japan
• “Performance-Creative Design Concept For Concrete Infrastructure” by Prof Shoji Ikeda, Japan
• “The Green Concrete Revolution” by Mr Chris Stanley, UAE
• “Anchoring Methods For Prestressed FRP Reinforcement” by Prof Petr Stepanek, Czech Rep.
• “Importance of Overall Evaluation of Civil Structures” by Prof Taketo Uomoto, Japan
• "A lifetime in precast concrete" by Dr Arnold Van Acker*, Belgium
• "The Green Alternative of Self Compacting Concrete, ECO-SCC" by Prof O H Wallevik, Iceland
Other Important Special Sessions presented were:
1- “Sustainability in Cement production & Concrete manufacturing”
a-“Sustainability and Aggregates” by V R Kulkarni, President, Indian Concrete Institute, India
b-“Sustainability and Concrete Applications in India” by Raj Pillai, Chairman, Karnataka Center, indian Concrete Institute
c-"Enduring concrete: reducing carbon footprints to pave way for concrete sustainability" by Nilotpol Kar and KiatHuat Seow*
a-“Geopolymer Concrete : A Review Of Development And Opportunities” by N A Lloyd
b-“Nano Cement Additives (NCA) Development For OPC strength enhancer and Carbon Neutral
Cement production” by F C Lai*, M F M Zain and M Jamil
c-"Rheological behavior of fly ash based geopolymer concrete"by Rajan Bhattacharjee* and
Aminul Islam Laskar
3-The Otsuki Special Session
a-“nfluence of temperature on sulfate resistance of cementitious material including blast”
by Yun sub Lee*, Nobuaki Otsuki, Tsuyoshi Saito and Takahisa Uchida
b-“Research on a Manufacturing method and Physical properties of Double Layered Concrete
Pile” by Yuriko Tsuburaya, Nobuaki Otsuki, Tsuyoshi Saito, and Saphouvong Khamhou
c-“Evaluation on Durability of the Autoclaved Cement-based Material using-C2S” by
Takahisa Uchida, Nobuaki Otsuki, Tsuyoshi Saito and Tatsuya Yumoto, Tokyo Institute of Technology
The technical papers that were published and orally presented and discussed were:
"Cement mixture reinforced by polypropylene fibres at higher temperature conditions"
Petr Prochazka*, Jirina Trcková and Vladimir Dolezel
"First-principles study on structural properties of beta-form belite"
Ryoji Sakurada*, A K Singh and Y Kawazoe
"Fibre concrete with recycled aggregate - masonry and concrete"
-"Properties of fibre concrete and applications of fibre concrete in Czech Republic"
"Chloride ion concentration on the discoloration boundary produced by spraying AgNO3 solution"
Yusuke Aoki*, Keiji Shimano and Masashi Suzuki
"Prediction of compressive strength by incorporating steel fibers”
R M Damgir* and Y M Ghugal
"Effect of temperature to micro-displacement of interfacial transition zone in cementitious materials by ESPI measurement"
Huang-Hsing Pan*, Jhan-Cheng Li, Tsung-Chin Hou and Kun-Sheng Liao
"Evaluation of properties of workable porous concrete"
M A Rafique Bhutta* and K Tsurutab
"Performance of steel reinforced sifcon two - way slabs in flexure"
H Sudarsana Rao*
"Study on the impact of aggregate size to SCC segregation"
Li Zeng*, Zhen Gao, Zhidong Liu, Erhong Tu and Rui Jiang
"Onesided moistening of concrete at various temperatures"
Petr Prochazka* and Martin Valek
"A fundamental study on diagnosis performance of hammering test using FE acoustics analysis"
Y Sonoda* and Kenta Kawabata
"Experimental study on reinforcing methods for window openings in confined masonry walls"
Masayuki Kuroki*, Kenji Kikuchi and Hideko Nonaka
"Strengthening of reinforced concrete elements using glass fibre"
K L Muthuramu*, A Chandran, S Govindarajan and S Karunanidhi
"Experimental study on splitting bond strength of r/c columns retrofitted laterally
with stressed external steel rods"
Seung Woung Ho*, Masayuki Kuroki and Kenji Kikuchi
"Study on size effect of retrofitted beam-column joint with beam weak in flexure under cyclic loading"
Abdul Munim Choudhury*, A Dutta and S K Deb
"Strength and permeability relationship of steel fibrous concrete"
Amrit Pal Singh* and D Singhal
"Flexural behaviour of glass fibre reinforced self compacting concrete slabs"
P Sravana, P Srinivasa Rao and T Seshadri Sekhar
"Behaviour of GFRP R C slabs in flexure in local environment - an experimental study"
M V Venkateshwara Rao*, P Jagannadha Rao, M V Sheshagiri Rao and K Jagannadha Rao
"Durability studies on concrete with wood ash additive"
C Sashidhar* and H Sudarsana Rao
"Study on prediction for neutralization depth of concrete containing fly ash and blast furnace slag soaked in sulfuric acid solution"
Hiroki Nagano*, T Otani, Y Sato, Y Akiyoshi, H Matsui and T Mishima
"Seismic behaviour of concrete filled steel tubular beams"
E K Mohanraj*, S Kandasamy and A Rajaraman
Amongst the technical papers orally presented and discussed, 3 (three) were adjudged outstanding and the speaker awarded had confirmed that the paper was original.
Japan Concrete Institute AWARD to:
“Study on Fire Resistance In Tunnel FR Concrete Lining”
Petr Prochazka* and Sarka Peskova
ACI-Singapore Chapter AWARD to:
“Nano Cement Additives (NCA) Development For OPC strength enhancer and Carbon Neutral Cement production”
by Fook Chuan Lai*, M F M Zain and M Jamil
Singapore Concrete Institute AWARD to:
“Chloride ion concentration on the discoloration boundary produced by spraying AgNO3 solution”
Yusuke AOKI*, Keiji SHIMANO and Masashi SUZUKI,
Conference OW10 advisors comprised
The OWICS Steering Council of Advisors
-Prof Petr Štepánek, Czech Republic
-Dr Holger Wallbaum, Switzerland
-Prof Issam Harik, USA
-Prof Min-Hong Zhang, Singapore
-A/Prof Susanto Teng, Singapore
-Dr Nabil F Grace, USA
The OW10 Conference Joint Chairpersons were: Prof MinHong Zhang and Dr C T Tam,
The National University of Singapore, Singapore
Co-Sponsors of OW10 Conference were:
• BASF (Gold)
• WAK (Gold)
• NOVAARS International Pte Ltd
• CKM Consultants Pte Ltd
-The 26th Concrete Industry Dinner on 27 August celebrated the 35th anniversary of OWICS.
Highlights at the Dinner was the cutting of the anniversary cake by the Emeritus and Honorary Chairmen of OWICS Steering Council.
For their continuous support and significant contribution for more than ten years, the following were welcome to the Steering Council and received that certificates for special recognition viz:
Prof N Otsuki, Mr C Stanley, Prof P Prochazka, Dr J B Jiang, Dr R Sakurada, Mr D King, and Prof G K C Ong.
Other highlights include Dinner Quiz, and presentation of Honorary Chairmanship of the Prestressted and Precast Concrete Society and prizes to winners of the ACI-SC top cube competition.
The celebration was entertained by the GOLDEN GIRLS of the Queenstown Community Centre.
The 36th Conference on 14-16 August 2011
THE CONFERENCE is DEDICATED TO:
Prof Olafur H Wallevik, Iceland for his support and significant contribution.
Dr Olafur H Wallavik has worked with the rheology of concrete and other cement based particle suspensions since he finished his master thesis on that theme at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in 1983.
In the year 1987he made the first version of the BML B Viscometer which is now available throughout the world.
He received his doctorate degree in rheology from the same University in 1990.
His special fields are Rheology of fresh concrete, high performance concrete, high strength concrete, self -compacting concrete and microstructures.
He is currently, the head of the concrete division at the Icelandic Building Research Institute and the Manager of Contech Ltd.
He is a former vice president of the Nordic Rheology Society and a former chairman of the scientific commission in the Nordic Concrete Federation.
Er John S Y Tan, Conference Director
(Updated 01 August 2011)